Android app improvement for full learners


Studying Android app improvement might seem to be a frightening job, however it might open up a world of prospects. You possibly can create the following “hit app” that modifications the best way we work or work together with one another. Possibly you’ll develop a instrument that you should use your self to enhance your workflow. Or maybe you’ll simply achieve a brand new ability that lands you a terrific job!

Additionally learn: Making an app with no programming expertise: What are your choices?

Regardless of the case, studying Android app improvement won’t be as robust as you suppose, so long as you perceive what all of the completely different transferring elements are for, and have a roadmap to information you thru. This publish is that highway map!

Step 1: Downloading the instruments you want for Android app improvement

First, it is advisable to create your improvement surroundings in order that your desktop is able to assist your Android improvement targets. For that, you’ll need Android Studio and the Android SDK. Fortunately, these each come packaged collectively in a single obtain that you’ll find right here.

Android Studio is an IDE. That stands for “built-in improvement surroundings,” which is basically an interface the place you may enter your code (primarily Java or Kotlin) and entry all of the completely different instruments essential for improvement. Android Studio means that you can entry libraries and APIs from the Android SDK, thereby providing you with entry to native capabilities of the working system. You’ll additionally have the ability to construct your app into an APK utilizing Gradle, check it by way of a “digital gadget” (emulator), and debug your code whereas it runs.

Programming on Laptop Android Studio

With all that mentioned, needless to say there are different choices out there to your Android app improvement. For instance, Unity is a really highly effective instrument for cross-platform sport improvement that additionally helps Android. Likewise, Visible Studio with Xamarin is a wonderful mixture for creating cross-platform apps in C#.

We’ve a information on the best way to create non-game apps in Unity and an introduction to Xamarin for cross platform Android improvement that can assist you out!

Android Studio is the perfect place for most individuals to start out (with Android sport improvement being an exception), significantly because it supplies all these further instruments and sources in a single place.

Fortuitously, arrange may be very easy and also you solely have to comply with together with the directions on the display screen.

If you happen to need assistance getting arrange, take a look at our Android Studio tutorial for learners. And our information on the best way to set up the Android SDK.

Step 2: Begin a brand new mission

After you have Android Studio in your machine, the following step is to start out a brand new mission. This can be a simple course of, however you’ll have to make just a few selections that may impression in your Android app improvement going ahead.

Project Template

Go to File > New > New Challenge. You’ll now be requested to pick out a “Challenge Template.” This defines the code and UI parts that might be included in your new app when it masses.

The phrase “Exercise” refers to a “display screen” in your app. Thus, a mission with “No Exercise” might be fully empty, aside from the essential file construction. A “Fundamental Exercise” however will create a beginning display screen to your app and can add a button within the backside and a hamburger menu on the prime. These are widespread parts in lots of Android apps, so this will prevent a while.

That mentioned, it might additionally danger making issues extra difficult once you’re first attending to grips with improvement. For that purpose, we’re going to decide on the “Empty Exercise.” This can create an exercise and a few information for us, however it received’t add a number of further code.

Configure Project

Select a reputation and “package deal identify” to your new app. The identify is what your viewers will see when the app is put in on their gadget. The package deal identify is an inner reference utilized by Android to distinguish it from different apps. This ought to be composed utilizing your prime stage area (e.g. .com), area identify, and app identify.

For instance: com.androidauthority.sampleapp.

If you happen to don’t have a website or an organization, simply use “com” adopted by one thing that appeals to you!

You’ll additionally have to determine the place you need the information to be saved and what language you’re going to code in: Java or Kotlin.

Java vs Kotlin for Android app improvement

One of many greatest selections you’ll have to make as an Android developer is whether or not you’re going to be taught Kotlin or Java. Each languages are formally supported by Google and Android Studio, however they’ve some distinct variations.

Java has been supported by Google the longest and is what builders have been utilizing to craft Android apps for years. Java can be probably the most in-demand programming languages on this planet, which makes it a terrific selection for individuals who wish to start a profession in improvement. Because the oldest Android programming language, there’s additionally barely extra assist for Java vs Kotlin, though it’s not by a lot.

Kotlin vs Java for Android app development

Kotlin, however, has grow to be Google’s most well-liked selection for Android improvement. That is the default when beginning a brand new app, and it’s more likely to grow to be extra widespread going ahead. Kotlin can be considerably simpler to familiarize yourself with should you’re a whole newbie.

For these causes, Kotlin might be the language of selection for Android builders which might be studying for enjoyable, or that haven’t any aspirations to develop for different platforms. Nevertheless, Java makes extra sense should you’re interested by changing into an expert developer.

You may be taught extra concerning the two choices right here by studying our information to Kotlin vs Java for Android.

Minimal SDK

Lastly, you additionally want to contemplate your Minimal SDK. That is the bottom model of Android that you really want your app to assist.

The decrease you make this quantity, the broader your potential viewers might be. Remember that there’s a comparatively low adoption fee for the newest variations of Android, so sticking with the newest replace will forestall a number of customers from attempting your creation.


Android 12 logo on Google Pixel 3 1

Jimmy Westenberg / Android Authority

Nevertheless, you’ll solely have the ability to entry the newest options of Android should you goal a newer model. If you happen to just like the sound of supporting chat bubbles, then you definitely’ll wish to keep on with the newest model.

Step 3: Familiarize your self with the information

I keep in mind the primary time I attempted Android app improvement. I loaded up Android Studio and was instantly baffled by what I noticed. There are simply so many various information, a number of forms of code, folders, and extra! This was worlds away from the only clean file I used to be used to working with in Python and even QBasic (anybody keep in mind QBasic??).

This may be relatively daunting, however right here’s what it is advisable to know.

New Java file

The file that’s open is or MainActivity.kt. That is the principle logic file for the exercise that’s going to outline how your app behaves. Look on the left, and also you’ll see that this file is present in: MyApplication > app > src > primary > java > com > companyname > myapplication.

The folders used are necessary for Android app improvement, as they assist Android Studio and Gradle to search out the whole lot and construct it accurately (extra on Gradle in a second). Suffice to say, you may’t simply rename these as you please!

You’ll discover that there’s already some code on the principle web page. That is what we name “boilerplate code,” that means that it’s code that’s virtually equivalent throughout completely different app initiatives and that’s wanted to make primary capabilities work. Boilerplate code is what you’ll end up typing out time and again! One of many advantages of Kotlin is that it requires much less boilerplate, that means that you simply’ll have much less code in your display screen if that’s what you selected.

Introducing structure information

The position of this code is to inform Android the place the related structure file is. A structure file is barely completely different from a Kotlin/Java file. This defines the best way that an exercise appears to be like, and allows you to add issues like buttons, textual content, and browser home windows.

You’ll discover this file in: MyApplication > app > src > res > structure.

It is going to be referred to as activity_main.xml. Notice that information saved within the sources folder can’t use capitals; they should use the underscore image to tell apart completely different phrases. Double click on on this file and it’ll open in the principle window the place you edit your code. Discover that you could swap between the open information utilizing tabs alongside the highest.

Design View

You may view this file by way of the “Code” view, the “Design” view, or a break up view that reveals these home windows side-by-side. There are buttons to change mode within the prime proper.

Within the design view, you may really drag and drop completely different widgets onto the display screen. The code view reveals you a load of XML script. Whenever you add new widgets by way of the Design view, this script will replace. Likewise, you may tweak properties of the widgets (referred to as “views”) in right here and see them mirrored in real-time by way of the Code view.

Within the overwhelming majority of apps, you’ll have to create a brand new Java/Kotlin file and a corresponding XML file, every time you need a new exercise. And for people who had been questioning: sure, which means it’s a must to be taught both Kotlin or Java and XML. This can be a little bit of a headache, however it really simplifies the method in the long term.

For getting used to XML, learn our introduction to XML for brand new Android builders. Or learn this information for extra concerning the completely different views and what they every do.

The opposite information and folders

There are tons extra information and folders right here although, so what do all of them do?

In reality, you don’t have to know what the whole lot right here is. However some issues which might be helpful to learn about:

The Android Manifest: That is an XML file within the res folder that defines necessary options of your app. That features the orientation of the app, the actions that you simply wish to be included in it, the model, and many others.

See additionally: Xml: the whole lot it is advisable to know

Drawable: This folder is present in res. That is the place you’ll put issues like pictures that you simply wish to reference later.

Values: This useful resource folder is a helpful place to retailer values that might be used globally throughout your app. For instance, this will embody shade codes (making it straightforward so that you can change the look of your complete app) or strings (phrases). You’ll outline these values in particular person XML information, corresponding to colours.xml.

Gradle: Gradle is the instrument that takes all of your information and bundles them right into a workable APK for testing. It’s also helpful for producing previews and many others. You received’t want to fret concerning the information in right here usually, however if you wish to add a “dependency,” that is the place you’ll do it. Dependencies are exterior libraries that allow you to entry further performance from inside your individual code.

In fact, we even have an in depth introduction to Gradle for brand new Android builders.

Step 4: Take a look at your app

The very first thing that you’re presupposed to do when familiarizing your self with any new programming language, is to create an app that claims “Howdy World.” Fortunately, that is very straightforward on this case seeing as that’s what the code that’s already right here does! If you happen to have a look at the XML, it features a small label that simply says: Howdy World!

If you happen to have a look at the controls alongside the highest, you’ll see there’s a bit inexperienced play arrow. On the left of this can be a drop-down menu, with a telephone identify in it. Whenever you put in Android Studio, this must also have put in an Android system picture together with the Digital Gadget Supervisor. In different phrases, it is best to have already got an Android emulator arrange and able to go! By clicking on this inexperienced arrow, you’ll have the ability to launch that and check your app! Discover that this may even allow you to use the emulated telephone as if it had been an actual gadget.

You may change the settings to your digital gadget – corresponding to display screen measurement, Android model, house and many others. – by going to Instruments > AVD Supervisor. You may also obtain new system pictures right here. Be sure that your digital gadget meets or exceeds the minimal SDK you set at the beginning.

Alternatively, you may strive plugging a bodily gadget into your laptop and utilizing this to check your new app. You’ll have to activate Developer Choices although, and allow USB Debugging.

See additionally: Learn how to allow Developer Choices in your Android Gadget

Step 5: Make a factor!

The easiest way to be taught Android app improvement is by doing! Which means it is best to have a stab at enhancing the code in entrance of you, to see if you can also make it do one thing new.

Altering the message that shows is so simple as going into your XML and altering the road that claims “Howdy World!” into “Howdy World!”

However what if you wish to add some form of interactive aspect to your creation? In that case, you may determine to let the person click on the button to alter the textual content.

Testing App

First, you’ll want to put this line contained in the TextView tag in your activity_main.xml:



This can give the textual content label the identify “helloButton” and can state that the tactic “onHelloButtonClick” will reference this view. We’re going so as to add that to our code in a second.

Now you may add the next code to your MainActivity. If you happen to see any textual content seem crimson as you’re typing it, which means it is advisable to “import” that code from the Android SDK. Click on on the crimson textual content then press Alt + Enter and Android Studio will do that for you routinely. In brief, this tells Android that you’re referencing a library that is part of the Android SDK.

(The next instance is written in Java.)


public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    TextView helloButton;

    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        helloButton  = (TextView) findViewById(;

        public void onHelloButtonClick (View v) {
        helloButton.setText("Howdy World!");

On this code instance, we first create an “object” within the code referred to as “helloButton.” Inside our “onCreate” methodology (the whole lot inside the curly brackets) we then inform Android that this object represents the button in our structure file. The code you place here’s what will run first once you launch an app.

Subsequent, we create the tactic that runs when somebody clicks on the button. As soon as that occurs, we are able to then change the textual content on the mentioned button. Discover that when once more, Kotlin requires considerably fewer strains to attain the identical factor!

Run the app and it is best to now see that once you click on the button, the textual content modifications!

This can be a quite simple app, however it demonstrates the fundamentals of how Android app improvement works. Typically, you can be creating new on-screen parts within the structure file, then defining how they behave within the related Java or Kotlin file.

Android app development Star Wars Quiz

As you get extra superior, you’ll want to start out manipulating and storing information. To do that, you’ll use variables that include numbers and strings (phrases).

We’ve an in-depth Java tutorial that may assist you to get began.

When you’ve learn via that, you’ll have a primary concept of how Java works, and all that’s left is to be taught how one can apply these expertise to Android app improvement. To that finish, a terrific technique is to choose a mission after which work on that.

And wouldn’t you realize it: we have now a ton of nice initiatives to check out! Like a simple first mission for Android app improvement noobs (math sport).

The secret’s to not attempt to be taught “all of Android app improvement” however to set your sights on a practical first mission. You’ll continue learning as you add new options and wish to do new issues, and having a purpose will hold your studying enjoyable and structured. Earlier than you realize it, you’ll be a professional!

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